Maarten Maartensz:    Philosophical Dictionary | Filosofisch Woordenboek                      

 A - And


And: In logic: Term for conjunction, both, each.

The term 'and' is a logical term, and is used to convey that the statement in which it occurs, provided it occurs as a connective between statements, is such that each of the two or more statements it is used to connect is true.

In formal logic, 'and' is often written as '&' or '.' and rules that are adopted for '&' are often these:

From (A&B) it follows that (A).
From (A&B) it follows that (B).
From (A) and (B) it follows that (A&B).

That is: From a conjunction one can derive each conjunct, and conversely one can derive a conjunction from having already derived each conjunct separately.

In standard propositional logic, there is an equivalence for conjunction that is known since antiquity, and usually goes by the name of the English 19th Century mathematician and logician De Morgan:

(A&B) IFF ~(~AV~B)

Thus one can define 'and' in terms of 'or' and 'not'.

Some other theorems in standard propositional logic involving 'and':

T1. p&p iff p
T2. p&q iff q&p
T3. p&(q&r) iff (p&q)&r

See also: Logical terms


Carnap, Cartwright

 Original: Jul 4, 2005                                                Last edited: 12 December 2011.   Top