Wishing someone ill, possibly backed up by deeds.
Human beings certainly feel malevolent to some, and benevolent
to others, and both can be inferred from their words and acts. Often
these feelings are not rational, and in case of malevolence often due to
lack of familiarity,
hormones, groupthinking or prejudice,
but this does not mean these feelings may not be strong.
Indeed, judged by human history - "History is little else but the
register of the crimes, follies and misfortunes of mankind" :
Gibbon - the forces
that dispose human being to malevolence seem on average stronger than
those that move them to benevolence. One reason for this seems to be
that most atrocities are committed by men who are not
happy, and human life and human
offers many reasons to become unhappy, and few not to.
To those who believe that this diagnosis is too
pessimistic, it may
be granted that it is hard to speak both with confidence and
about such quantities as "the sum of human (un)happiness", and also that
much misery has been caused by indifference -
since it is so easy to bear the pain of someone else.
In any case, it is merely a mark of stupidity to deny or turn a blind
eye to the great capacity for malevolence that inheres in humans, and to
the fact that there is much misery in any human life, and little pure
joy or happiness, and that what keeps most men's lifes tolerable are
hopes, dreams and illusions.
And so far, the three main source of human misery, namely human
stupidity, human malevolence, and human totalitarianism have not found effective remedies,
though the last 25 centuries of human history give many reasons to
support the notion that if intelligence or
happiness or both could be
doubled, by a simple pill without physical side-effects, addiction etc., human
become very different.