Harm: What hurts, pains, damages,
apart from personal ideals or beliefs.
The two main reasons why
people feel hurt are because their values or interests are opposed or
because their natural needs are not satisfied. Somebody may feel very
unhappy because his religious or political leaders or ideals are
opposed, and somebody may feel very unhappy because he has not enough to
eat or is tortured. The difference between these two kinds of causes for
human unhappiness is that the second kind of reasons applies to all
human beings, and the first will hold only for those who share religious
or political ideals.
It makes sense to consider ethical and moral questions especially in
terms of harm, and the harm again in physical terms: damage to person or
property. That is, a minimalistic - perhaps somewhat legalistic, but
also more realistic than e.g. theological approaches - good is
not to harm others (except in self-defense).
One needs not love one's neighbour (or not as much as oneself), while
doing a passive and minimalistic good to him, and to the social peace, by
not harming him. Or somewhat more idealistically, but in the same vein:
Enjoy and give pleasure, without doing harm to yourself or to anyone
else - that, I think, is the whole of morality.