complex society that has urban development, social stratification, an
elite, and some kind of writing.
The term ¨civilization¨
is related to the Latin ¨civis¨ (citizen) and ¨civitas¨ (city). The
given definition is fairly standard, and it should be noted that, as
stated, a complex society with cities and with writing,
but without an elite or without social stratification
would not be called a ¨civilization¨ if the above definition is
An alternative definition
of ¨civilization¨ is simply that most men in it live in cities. Then
again, in either case what are called ¨civilizations¨, and especially
if one talks of one civilization based on one territory, there usually
also is a state.