who can give up essential
liberty to obtain a little temporary
safety, deserve neither liberty
-- Benjamin Franklin
"All governments lie and nothing
say should be believed."
"Power tends to corrupt, and
absolute power corrupts
absolutely. Great men
almost always bad men."
1. The things that go
kinds of things go wrong?
1.2. Since when do these things go wrong?
1.3. What is the
reason these things
hypotheses about the crisis
corporate neo-fascism and surveillance:
power for the rich, effective slavery of the
big corporations have
taken over the state
spying on everyone
main media produce
nearly only propaganda
+ surveillance aim at corporate
aim at a long lasting
aim at two classes of
the human rich and the partially human rest
"war on terror" is mere
+ surveillance of all
will lead to more state
internet controls the world
the resources to beat the crisis
4. About this file
This is a rewriting of two
articles I wrote, namely this one
one, plus a small new third section (that
offers little hope). And this also explains the temporary return to the
format that I used in 2014.
Also, this is a repetition of a file that was published on December 4, 2014 and it is
completely the same except for this Introduction and
the last section About this file and for some added or updated links in the
Besides, the file of December
4, 2014 again was a restatement of a file I first published on December 25, 2012.
In fact, there are few differences between these several
versions, and indeed hardly any differences between 2014 and 2017, when
the present file was made (on August 24, 2017).
The main reason is that I hardly changed my mind the last 5
years, and not because I know a little, but because I know a
lot, for example about philosophy
But there are two differences with 2012, at least, that I do wish to
document in the beginning, and these are two clear definitions (much
clearer than nearly any that I read on the internet) of what I mean by
the terms ¨fascism¨ and ¨neofascism¨, also since I am using them a lot
in the text that follows:
is a. A social system that is
marked by a government with centralized authority and a dictator, that
suppresses the opposition through propaganda, censorship and terror,
that propounds an ethics founded
on discipline, virility, and collectivism, that has a politics that is
totalitarian, anti-liberal, anti-individualist,
anti-equality, and anti-Marxist, that is also authoritarian,
rightwing and nationalistic, and often racist, and that has a corporative organization of the economy, b. A political philosophy or movement based on or
advocating such a social system.
And there is this:
Neofascism is a. A social system that is
marked by a government with a centralized powerful authority, where
the opposition is propagandized and suppressed or censored, that
propounds an ethics which has profit as
its main norm, and that has a politics that is rightwing, nationalistic, pro-capitalist,
anti-liberal, anti-equality, and anti-leftist,
and that has a corporative
organization of the economy in which multi-national corporations are
stronger than a national government or state, b. A political philosophy or
movement based on or advocating such a social system.
At least, these are clear
definitions (and the last also shows the quite tight relation between -
what I call - neofascism and neoliberalism).
Also, two important differences between myself and the vast
majority of journalists are that I do not consider myself a
journalist, and I do
offer hypotheses, and I offer these in a scientific
spirit (much more so than a popular or journalististic spirit), which
also means that I know very
well that I may be mistaken.
Finally, this is a
crisis file, but not an ordinary one. There is an earlier ordinary crisis file from today.
(And this is from 2017, when I have two years of serious problems with
my main provider ).
things that go wrong
What sort of things have
gone wrong, in a major way, in Europe and
the US, and since when, and why?
I give some brief and sketchy
points and answers, that are only meant
to help one to get things clarified, and certainly not as complete or
kinds of things go wrong?
There are at least six
sectors of society and one of nature that seem
to go wrong currently and for quite a while now:
- the economy: The economies of Europe and the US are
in a major mess and a crisis since 2008, while also nothing much
effective has been done about this, other than save the banks while
forcing the population at large to pay for the debts. See the crisis series.
- health care: The health care systems of both the US
and Europe are in a major mess: The dominant end is profit
good health care, and both the management of health care and medicine
itself are corrupt in major ways. See the DSM-5 series.
- education: The educational system, on all levels, in
both the US and Europe is in a crisis, and offers far worse education
for far more money than before. See my published columns.
& civil law: Politicians, political parties and legislatures
are all for the most part quite corrupt in the US and Europe, and seem
to attract and protect precisely the wrong kinds of careerist and
naturally born posturers, liars and deceivers (already feared by
the ancient Greeks). Also, it has turned out there are no really
independent courts: the courts follow politics mostly. See the crisis series.
- public debate: There
is hardly any intelligent public debate - language has grown corrupt
through political correctness; public relations talk and marketing rule
almost every important topic: much of the public debate - if there is
- is along public
relations lines, in Orwellian doublespeak. See Bernays' "Propaganda" to get
a grasp of what is going on.
Since when do these things go wrong?
- climate: The climate
gets warmer and warmer and is effectively out of control, with
unforeseeable and unstoppable social consequences of many kinds.
- surveillance and secrecy:
The Western governments, especially those in English speaking
countries, have decided to spy on everyone with a computer or
cellphone in the entire world, on the pretext of "terrorism",
but in fact to control everyone as soon as possible and as much
as possible and then to killl anything radical even before it started.
above developments, if you start
thinking about it, and know some recent history, or are over 60, or
both, as in my case, have been taking place for quite a while. Here are
some temporal indicatons:
economy: The present crisis started in 2007-2008, but got started
in principle under Reagan, Clinton and Greenspan, namely by
deregulations of the banking world, also obfuscated some by the
of PCs and the internet, that also fundamentally changed the economy: 1980-1990.
See the crisis
- health care: (1) The management of health
care seems to have been always a mess in the US compared with Europe,
but in Europe the American model has been introduced since 2000 in the
name of "the blessings of market forces", and has grown steadily more
expensive and worse for patients, if highly profitable for medical
doctors and medical managers; (2) the practice of medical
science and health care has grown a lot worse: The science grew
an adjunct of the marketing of
the health care got thoroughly bureaucratized: All of this has been
ongoing since the 1980ies. See the DSM-5 series.
- education: Both schools and universities have been
giving less and less real education, normally in the name of
since the 1960ies - and note this is one of the changes the
neither really see, nor really feel, nor really understand: To be able
to know and understand what they miss they need what they miss - a
(half way) good
education. See my published columns.
& civil law: Politics became much more of a top down market and
public relations driven careerist thing especially since the
and 1970ies showed anything can be sold by TV, including actors who
want to be presidents; politicians are for sale to lobbyists; opinions
can be created and bought by marketing / public
relations campaigns; and judges turn out to be not to
be independent from politics nor able to constrain politics, and indeed
for much that is new - computing and internet - there is no existing
and in any case no effective legislation. See the crisis series.
- public debate:
Ongoing with the decline of education and with the rise of marketing /
public relations as the tool of choice of governmental bodies,
corporate bodies, and political parties, the standards of public
debate have grown ever and ever lower, and indeed many questions that
should be intelligently discussed in public are either not discussed at
all, or only in marketing / public
relations terms that make a rational
impossible. See Bernays'
This happened since the 1980ies (at the latest).
1.3. What is the
reason these things go wrong?
- climate + environment:
Since the 1950ies (Rachel
- spying on and
surveillance of everybody: There are several distinct starting points: In the 1960ies, U.S. think tanks
announced that soon everybody would be surveilled, that would enable
the surveillers - the secret services - of diagnosing and stopping
radicalism before it started; in the 1970ies there was the prescient Church
report, that warned for surveilling everyone; from 2001 onwards
Michael Haydon and Keith Alexander have used 9/11 and propaganda to illegally
surveil everyone with a computer
or cell-phone; from June 2013 the
last plan and the
enormous activities of the spying agencies were outed by Edward Snowden.
The main reason
the things mentioned have gone wrong is a combination of deregulation,
increased power of
governments, and mistaken ideas and ideals.
Again I limit myself to
headings and points:
decline of standards:
- in education
- in banking
- in lobbying
- in law
- in medicine
- in the press
I have been writing
about this often in Nederlog, especially in the crisis series and the DSM-5 series; in my published columns; and in ME in Amsterdam, about the utter disappearance of the
maintenance of the law in Amsterdam and in Holland as regards illegal
I think deregulation and
the associated decline of standards in many
fields is in fact the main theme and the main force behind or enabler
of the things that went wrong: Relativism, postmodernism,
on an enormous scale through the lowering of educational
standards, and specifically:
The rise of
- "everybody knows that
truth does not exist"
- "everybody knows
that everything is relative"
- "everybody knows
that everybody is
equal or equivalent"
For which see Scientific realism vs.
postmodernism and Morningstar
shines a bright light and Yahooism with a human face.
NB for those who can recall the postmodernism
of the 1970ies-1990ies, and who might want to object there is much
less of it: This is because so much has been widely accepted;
so many standards have been replaced by propaganda
relations prose; and because the main damages, the decline of
education and educational standards, have succeeded and are in
Increased power of
corporations and governments:
- since 9/11/2001 and
the "war on terror"
- the introduction of
- datamining by
Google, Facebook and others
The internet has made it
possible for corporations and governments to
spy on everyone; the lack of any real or effective legislation combined
with the presence of computers everywhere and the apparent enormous
profitability or possibilities for control made it possible for both
corporations and states to spy on the population to an extent that never
has been possible, and until very recently was not even conceived of
Mistaken ideas and
- the "war on terror"
- the liberating forces
of the market
- the desirability of
spying on the population
- the European Union
If there was
and is no plan to create
in Europe and the US, that are effectively controlled by the executives and
owners of the big international corporations, and/or are being run by
politicians and yes-men that corporate powers mostly control, then
the fact that this was the outcome of the last 10 years must be due to
the wide acceptance of mistaken ideas and ideals:
The "war on terror"
works out as a tool to begin and impose state terrorism,
in the form of
forced identity papers, reading of e-mails, secret wire-tapping, and
surveilled and stored internet behavior, followed by whatever a truly
corrupt and power-crazed government may impose using the force and the
information they acquired, including concentration camps, renditioning
to torture centers, and disappearance without trial or trace.
of the market" have turned out to be a ploy by
corporations, e.g. in health care, first to get free from control by
the law, the public and the press, by deregulating
these checks and
balance away, and then succeeded by appropriating power and
control over health care by its managers, through public
The "European Union"
a plan for a federal state that was not based
on any tenable social or political theory, and a plan for an
union that should + have been implemented by a common currency:
all hang together, so will fall together if any falls, while the vast
majority of the citizens of the EU is as nationalistic and chauvinistic
as they ever were.
So far for these brief
notes to help you and me get some perspective on
very complicated processes and patterns that depend on many factors,
and that for the most part exist for one to five decades at least.
on and surveillance of everyone:
- everybody everywhere
with a cellphone or computer is spied upon
- the only real end this
can have is an authoritarian state and state terrorism
- few really see
the dangers, for few really know how
spying on the population", which is what has been
practised systematically by European governments and by the US
government since 9/11 is in fact a ploy to impose state terrorism
- which is a fundamentally insane notion even if, as perhaps in the
Soviet Union and China, it gets introduced for what seem moral reasons:
No man can be
trusted with absolute power over other
men, and least of all the men who run a state or large
organization or their anonymous bureaucrats - if these are not
controlled by effective checks and
balances, such as independent courts, a real free press,
educated public that needs not fear to speak or write as they
for else corporate or state governors will enthrall as much and
as many as they
can, for that has happened always wherever they got the chance.
about the crisis
This section is (1)
explicitly about the causes of the crisis and (2) explicitly
lists my theses as scientific
that explain the
causes of the crisis - which
also means that I am very clear that I am not certain.
Also, the present
section is a slight reworking of two earlier files, of which the second is a reworking of the first,
that I first published on
December 25, 2012,
which was written at a time that I did not know anything about
or his revelations: This only happened only on June 10, 2013 and later.
In fact, I also think that my
hypotheses of 2012 were strongly
confirmed by Snowden's revelations, indeed in a way and to an
extent that is rare in the social sciences.
This indeed does not
mean that I am right, but it does mean
hypotheses are more probable than they were, though that also doesn't
need to mean very much.
Here is first some fixing of
terminology (that you may skip):
key terms, and some relevant distinctions:
As to the corporations:
Corporations are groups of persons that seek to acquire and retain
property (goods, commodities, and powers that help acquiire these) by
taking property from others.
What you should realize,
though, are the enormous amounts of propaganda, advertisements, and public
relations, all of which are always intentional lies or
misrepresentations, that everybody who lives in the West is
exposed to, and that most of the people consider "natural" and
"informative", and also like to live up to, without being
because they think they are better and more happy men and women when
they walk in branded expensive shirts and shoes.
One must distinguish corporations as
social institutions, and keep apart the corporate élites, the
corporate executives, the corporate staff, and the corporate employees,
since each of these are different groups.
As to states,
in the sense of governments:
States are groups
of persons that
seek to acquire and retain power over others
(influence, renown, force, military might, weapons) on a certain
territory, by taking power and
possibilities from others.
In the present text,
"state" is used as "government", that in addition
to the above may be characterized as almost invariably being recruited
from some existing social or economical élite, in order to
run the daily doings of the most powerful organization on some
territory, through a staff of bureaucrats
and (semi-)military personnel.
Both corporations and states
work mostly by propaganda
popular spokespersons, special publications) in times of peace, that
also is directed at their own staffs, if perhaps not in
the form this
reaches the masses who do not belong to the staff or personnel.
1: On corporate neo-fascism and surveillance:
principle, corporate neo-fascism
- defined as: the state is de facto owned and run by and for the
major international corporations, that are multinationals
and beyond state or judicial control -
in combination with the surveillance
state - defined as: the state's surveillance and recording
of the activities, interests, concerns, ideas, values, of its
- means effective absolute power for small corporate élites
plus their executives, and effective slavery for the rest.
Note this is mainly a matter
of definition, and as such is ept or inept rather than true or false.
What is true or false (and merely probable or improbable when taken
hypothetically) is that what I call corporate neo-fascism (which is a
fairly classical definition), together with what I call the
surveillance state, aim at absolute power for the corporate
their executives, and effective slavery for the rest. (And of course no
politician or bureaucrat will ever admit this - and they also do not
need to, for much has succeeded by now.)
If you want support for this
The wages have hardly risen for 30
years in the U.S.; the middle class(es) are rapidly disappearing; there
are ever more poor and very poor people; the economic inequalities are
growing enormously and have never been as large; the banks'
seem to be all multimillionaires and get paid enormous sums; none of
the bankmanagers has ever been punished for anything; the big
corporations pay extremely little taxes, as do the rich; and hardly any
government does anything real against these facts.
2: Corporate neo-fascism and surveillance have succeeded
ordinary citizens do, desire, think, write, mail - their internet
activities, their phones, their bankaccounts, their interests, their
identities, their pictures, their fingerprints, their families, their
friends, their opinions, their education, the things they bought and
sold, and more - has been thoroughly recorded and filed,
whenever and wherever possible, since 9/11/2001, namely for the
eventual use, by unknown anonymous persons, possibly acting, for unknown ends, for obscure or secret organizations,
or for mostly
secretively acting corporations, all possibly at unknown locations,
much or all that has been collected in one country gets - explicitly or
deviously - shared with the US and with the police or security
forces in other countries.
This is all as I
formulated it in 2012, and has been massively confirmed by
Snowden's revelations. Also, it
should be noted
that I consider all this spying on all persons illegal, immoral,
reprehensible and neo-fascistic: A government
that spies on all or on a
large part of its citizens is a neo-fascist government, and none
spokespersons can be relied on in any way.
This "sharing of
information" happens both by political agreements, where governments
agree with US state organs like the FBI or CIA that they will share
data on what are claimed to be (potential) "terrrorism suspects", and
by brute force: Whatever happens on the internet may be tracked, traced
In this "We the
people" have been systematically betrayed by nearly all
politicians of nearly all
stripes: Their rights not to be spied upon, except perhaps
court order, issued by an independent judge, have been completely
Likewise, and apart from
that, the internet activities of everyone have been secretively
tracked, traced, datamined, and stored for the benefit of corporations,
not only for targeted advertizing, but to get all possible information
on anyone who either may eventually become a customer, an employee or
3: The big corporations have
taken over the state
taken over the states by propagandizing and/or by buying the
bureaucrats and politicians.
This again is all as I formulated it in 2012, and
has been massively confirmed by Snowden's revelations. And this
certainly goes back - at least - to the 1970ies (the Powell memorandum)
and has a long history. To what extent the European politicians
diverse parties have been bought I do not know, but I do know that many
"liberals", "socialists", and "christian democrats" - all between
quotes, because the one thing I know about them is that they are all liars -
sound very often as if they are singing from the same
sheets that the American Republican politicians also sing from, and
they also use the same tricks.
This has been going on
for a long time - decades, and certainly since Eisenhower
dangers of the military-industrial
complex - and has mostly succeeded
since 9/11/2001: The majorities of those who should control the states
(politicians and bureaucrats) now are controlled by people working for
the big corporations.
This was and is not
merely a matter of corruption and buying: Part was effected through propaganda.
This also holds for
European states in EU, and explains why prominent politicians in
diverse parties sound as if they are singing from a GOP hymn sheet, and
use GOP tactics, such as nominally taking over the moral stances of
those they oppose.
4: The states are spying on
The states of
Europe and the US have been turned into surveillance states
where anonymous state bureaucrats in principle know all there is to
know about all ordinary citizens.
This also is all as I formulated it in 2012, and
has been massively confirmed by Snowden's revelations. However,
less is known about Europe than is known about the U.S., but that is
more a reflection on the secrecy and lack of constitutional principles
under which the E.U. works than it is based on positive knowledge that
the European situation is "less bad" than the American one. I think it
is probable that everywhere some secret service has probably
up all the information there can be gotten from the internet and from
This has been going on
from since before 9/11/01, that much increased it, and is not
by state organizations but also by corporations, and in both cases was
possible because there are hardly any rational laws that can be
effectively applied to the internet.
5: The main media produce nearly
Most that what ordinary people
- the badly educated "democratic majority" - get offered in the public
media, and especially TV, is middle of the road propaganda,
that stonewalls, avoids or lampoons all that is not middle of the road
trivialities, and that systematically avoids (almost) any really
intelligent and informed discussion of the themes that matter to a free
society, inhabited by free citizens, who are not controlled and spied
upon and propagandized by both state organs and corporations.
These hypotheses have not
confirmed by Snowden's revelations. Even so, I think they are quite
right and quite relevant, and the simplification and stupification of
the education on all levels has been going on now in the West since the
late 1960ies, and also have been very little protested against.
Education has been systematically
simplified, stupefied and leveled,
and teaches hardly
any real intellectual skills.
High culture and high
civilization and high art of all kinds: science, art, independent
media, music, in so far as these existed, have been cut or replaced by
middle brow or low brow stuff that nominally does the same, and is more
effective as propaganda for the masses.
Additional reasons may
be that strangling high art and civilization, that often need subsidies
to exist, cost less and helps preventing that intellgent persons get ideas or find a public
for spreading their ideas.
6: Neo-fascism + surveillance aim
at corporate power over all
This is in fact hypothesis 1
in a specific form - and it
should be noted that all of what
hypothesis 6 says
is and was deeply anti-democratic: The state, in a democracy,
elected by the people, and is controlled by parliaments; the new
has officials that are paid by the corporations, and/or do their
biddings, and the parliaments are mostly ineffective.
Power to the
over the state and over the
population, by buying, taking over, and/or turning into commercial
markets what once were the states' powers and institutions,
manage the majority of the ordinary citizens by propaganda, control,
surveillance, and force, and not by reason nor in freedom.
7: Neo-fascism + surveillance aim
at a long lasting
This also is the other part of
hypothesis 1 in a specific form. Note that we are not yet quite
though a lot of it is at least in place.
A long lasting
authoritarian empire controlled by the corporate élite for the
corporate élites benefit, with features of Stalinism, but much
strenghtened by the Surveillance State's absolute surveillance of all.
8: Neo-fascism + surveillance aim
at creating two classes of people : The rich, who have the power and
human, and the rest who are
not fully human and have no rights
The ideology of the
corporate élite is
difficult to discern, except that these folks - and their
spokesmen, as can be found in Fox News - believe they ought to
own the world and have an authoritarian and conservative agenda:
This seems to me to be a quite
good guess at the ideology
of the corporate élites. Again, we are not
quite there yet, although speakers for the Republicans are often quite
close to hypothesis 8 (and also are rather often motivated by racism).
That those who control the
corporations should control the states, the
people and the world, presumably because they have the right and duty
to impose their ideology on others, while their actions must be good,
because by rising to control the corporations they have shown
themselves to be the best, and because any force used by the best for
declared good by the best must be good.
9: The "war on terror"
is mere propaganda for neo-fascism + surveillance of all
"The war on terror"
is - or seems much like - a program to introduce corporate neo-fascism
taking over the state and by introducing the surveillance
state, that watches, tracks and records all activities of all
ordinary citizens, so that these ordinary citizens can be
privately and personally controlled,
manipulated and propagandized.
This is in part a restatement
of the hypothesis 1, and explains "the war on terror" as not being primarily directed
Qaeda" (which anyway is ridiculous), but as being primarily directed
against the democratic institutions and against the
ordinary people of
their own countries.
10: Neo-fascism + surveillance
will lead to more state terrorism
and soon may be many more, (secret) concentration camps,
disappearances, secret renditions and secret prisons,
because that is
and always was the nature of state terrorism,
and because most of the propagandized and ill-educated democratic
majorities support terrorism against those who have been styled
terrorists, especially if the latter do not belong to their own groups.
This is also something that is
(or may) not quite be there yet, although there are many signs
including the threats against Snowden and Greenwald; the
non-persecution of the Congressional liar Clapper; and the defense of
the stealing of everyone's private information, completely
any judge's opinion that the person committed probably a crime (which
is the legal way, that has been mostly left).
Extra hypothesis 11:
Whoever controls the internet controls the world
internet controls the world, at least implicitly.
Namely in four ways, at
- Governments and
corporations need the internet as information processors:
some control over some aspects of this - as do Google and Facebook, for
example - controls part of the content and the data mining that is
possible through that.
- The internet is
on physical computers, cables and broadcasters: Whoever can control
these, as can the state organs on whose territory these items exist,
has control of the functioning of them.
- The internet, in so
far as it is controlled, is controlled
by states and their organs:
Whoever controls the parliamentarians, ministers or chief bureaucrats
can shape legislation.
- Whatever runs on any
computer can be taken over by whoever can get control over the
computer: corporate or state secret spies, or state representatives
such as the police.
This is thrown in
because the internet is central to everything the NSA does, and because
the internet is very weak in terms of laws and regulations, and
especially in laws and regulations that are maintained.
About the resources
There are at least
four kinds of people that might contribute to battling the crisis:
Those without a college education, who mostly do not read books and
have few intellectual interests of any kind, and constitute at least
2/3rds of any large unselected group.
Intellectuals: Those with a university degree, who
do have some intellectual interests, and belong to maximally
Middle class: Those with incomes higher than the 10%
lowest incomes and lower than the 10% highest incomes.
Upper class: Those with incomes equal or higher than 90%.
The first thing to
notice is that almost everyone receives these days far more propaganda
than real and adequate information:
Almost everyone gets
inundated with advertisements
nearly everywhere, all of which are
propaganda and lies, while also for intellectuals it is difficult to
get the real news, since the mass media only offer a selection
real news, and also present this in some very propagandistic manner.
(It still is possible to get the real news, but this takes effort, and
may soon be forbidden.)
The second thing to
notice is that of any of these four large groups of people only a
small minority may be relied upon to do anything about the
system in which they live if doing this is impopular or makes them
fact makes it quite unlikely any revolution or rebellion will overthrow
the system, the more so since everyone is being surveilled
in secret: the best chance for a radical change is a collapse
of the system.
About this file
As I said,
this file is a slightly revised version of a file I published
on December 4, 2014. The main reasons to publish it again
is that the original is nearly three years old, while I think the
present file is good and important, and that it says many things few
see or dare to say, while I also did not change my mind. 
I have now been saying since the end of 2015 that xs4all.nl is systematically
ruining my site by NOT updating it within a few seconds,
as it did between 1996 and 2015, but by updating it between
two to seven days later, that is, if I am lucky.
They have claimed that my site was wrongly named in html: A lie.
They have claimed that my operating system was out of date: A lie.
And they just don't care for my site, my interests, my values or my
ideas. They have behaved now for 1 1/2 years as if they are the
eagerly willing instruments of the US's secret services, which I will
from now on suppose they are (for truth is dead in Holland).
The only two reasons I remain with xs4all is that my site has been
there since 1996, and I have no reasons whatsoever to suppose that any
other Dutch provider is any better (!!).
 I have been asking myself whether the
fact that I write many normal crisis files (I wrote nearly 1700 crisis files since 2008, and must have reviewed something like
6000 articles in them) while I did not write many special
files, has much to do with my disease (ME/CFS
that I now have since nearly forty years).
I decided it has some influence, namely in the sense that if I
were healthier than I am, I would have written more than I have, but
not very much, and that mostly because I did make up my mind in
and did not change it much since, indeed also because what I
concluded in 2012 without knowing of Snowden´s existence was much
confirmed by what he published since 2013.